1.Why are there no tools made of titanium or titanium alloy?
We cannot look at titanium in terms of steel.Compared with steel, titanium's hardness and sharpness are simply out of proportion.A steel knife, can be very sharp, but after cutting wood, paper and other soft things, will also become dull, of course, S35, M390, V3N and so on much better.With a titanium knife, it's certainly not as hard as steel, but as long as you don't cut something as hard or harder, it will stay sharp for a long time.The titanium nail will be a little dull after 2-3 years. I put it on an electric drill and grind it with a 2000 mesh whetstone, which is really much harder than steel.Titanium is a very good material for everyday cutting tools, except it is expensive and difficult to grind.Titanium knife daily cut soft food, paper, wood, and so on, almost will not become dull, and non-toxic, stainless acid and alkali does not invade.And it can make a very fancy surface and oxide layer.
2.Do not consider the price, only consider the hardness, sharpness, durability, that is, the most ideal knife should be what material?
If it is a modern tool, do not consider the traditional tool art, inheritance (bao steel and other technologies) the first cpm-3v, powder tool steel with a strong toughness (chopping will not break) hardness, heat treatment up to 60, maintenance is very high easy to grind, since it is a real operation, not a play.If you've ever sharpened a tool like the S30V or the M390, you know how important it is to be able to grind easily. Why choose 3V is an important piece of information that needs to be disseminated, and hopefully it will give you some useful information.CPM 3V, a powder metallurgy steel alloy owned by Crucible (Crucible, or Crucible) co., LTD., has super toughness and excellent wear resistance.The alloy composition is as follows: 0.8% Chromium 7.5% Chromium Vanadium 2.75% Vanadium content Molybdenum 1.3% Molybdenum content by the alloy composition list, CPM 3V in the powder alloy steel commonly used in cutting tools, the alloy composition is relatively small.Its 0.8% carbon content, 2.75% vanadium and 1.3% molybdenum make 3V have excellent retention.Powder metallurgy makes it extremely tough, even as tough as S7 in pure carbon steel.At the same time: 7.5% Cr content makes 3V stainless steel.
3.What is alloy？
An alloy is a substance having the properties of metals synthesized by certain methods from two or more metals and metals or nonmetals.Generally obtained by fusion into uniform liquid and solidification.According to the number of constituent elements, it can be divided into binary alloy, ternary alloy and multivariate alloy.
4.What's the history of alloys?
The first people in the world to make alloys were the babylonians, who began refining bronze (an alloy of copper and tin) 6,000 years ago.China is also one of the earliest countries in the world to study and produce alloys. The bronze (copper-tin alloy) technology was very developed in the shang dynasty (more than 3,000 years ago).Around the 6th century BC (late spring and autumn period) the sword was forged (and overheated) to produce a sharp sword.
5.What is the commonality of the alloy?
All types of alloys have the following characteristics: (1) the melting point of most alloys is lower than that of any of the constituent metals; (2) hardness is generally greater than that of any metal in its components;(exception: sodium-potassium alloys are liquid and are used as heat conductors in atomic reactors.) (3) the conductivity and thermal conductivity of the alloy are lower than that of any component metal.Using this characteristic of alloys, materials with high resistance and high thermal resistance can be made.Materials with special properties can also be made. (4) some corrosion resistance (such as stainless steel) such as iron mixed with 15% chromium and 9% nickel to get a corrosion resistant stainless steel, suitable for the chemical industry
6.What are the common alloys?
Ductile iron, manganese steel, stainless steel, brass, bronze, copper, solder, duralumin, 18K gold, 18K platinum, etc.
7.About the processing of alloys
 medium carbon steel: on behalf of the steel 30, 35, 40, 45, also have ML30, ML35, ML40, ML45, a more stable room temperature performance, used for small and medium-sized structural parts, fasteners, transmission shaft, gear, etc.  manganese steel: represents steel 40Mn2, 50Mn2.Have superheat sensitivity, high temperature tempering brittleness, water quenching easy to crack, hardenability is higher than carbon steel.  silicon manganese steel: on behalf of steel types 35SiMn, 42SiMn.High fatigue strength, decarburization and overheating sensitivity and temper brittleness.It is used to manufacture gear, shaft, rotary shaft, connecting rod and worm with medium speed and high load but little impact. It can also manufacture fasteners under 400℃.  boron steel: represents steel types 40B, 45B, 50BA, ML35B.Hardenability is high, comprehensive mechanical properties are higher than carbon steel, and 40Cr is suitable for the manufacture of small section size of parts, fasteners, etc.  manganese boron steel: represents steel type 40MnB.Hardenability slightly higher than 40Cr, high strength, toughness and low temperature impact toughness, temper brittleness.40MnB is often used to replace 40Cr to make large-section parts and 40CrNi to make small parts.45MnB replaces 40Cr and 45Cr;45Mn2B replaces 45Cr and parts of 40CrNi and 45CrNi as important shafts, and ML35 MnB is also used for fastener production.  manganese vanadium boron steel: on behalf of the steel 20 MnVB, 40MnVB,.Tempering performance and hardenability is better than 40Cr, overheating tendency is small, there is temper brittleness.It is often used to replace 40Cr, 45Cr, 38CrSi, 42CrMo and 40CrNi in the manufacture of important tempering parts.  manganese tungsten boron steel: represents steel type 40MnWB.Good low temperature impact performance, no tempering brittleness.Similar to 35CrMo and 40CrNi, it is used to manufacture parts under 70mm.  silicon, manganese, molybdenum and tungsten steel: 35SiMn2MoW.It has high hardenability. Calculated by 50% martensite, the water quenching diameter is 180, and the oil quenching diameter is 100.The tendency of quenching cracking and tempering brittleness are small.High strength and high toughness.Can replace 35CrNiMoA, 40CrNiMo, used to manufacture large section, heavy load shaft, connecting rod and bolt.  silicon-manganese molybdenum-tungsten-vanadium steel: 37SiMn2MoWVA.Water quenching diameter 100, oil quenching diameter 70;Good tempering stability, low temperature impact toughness, high temperature strength, low tempering brittleness, used for manufacturing large section of shaft parts.  chromium steel: represented by 40Cr alloy steel pipe and ML40Cr.Good hardenability, water quenching 28-60mm, oil quenching 15-40mm.High comprehensive mechanical properties, good low temperature impact toughness, low notch sensitivity, temper brittleness.Used for manufacturing shaft, connecting rod, gear and bolt.  chromium silicon steel: 38CrSi for steel type.Hardenability is better than 40Cr, the strength and low temperature impact are higher, the tempering stability is better, the tempering brittleness tendency is greater.It is commonly used to manufacture 30-40mm shafts, bolts and gears with small modulus.  cr/mo steel: 30CrMoA, 42CrMo, ML30CrMo, ML42CrMo.Water quenching 30-55mm, oil quenching 15-40mm;High mechanical properties at room temperature, high strength at high temperature and good impact at low temperature;No tempering brittleness.Used for making parts with large section, bolts and gears with high load and flanges and bolts under 500℃;Conduit and fastener under 400℃.42CrMo has higher hardenability than 30CrMoA and is used for making parts with higher strength and larger cross sections.  chromium manganese molybdenum steel: on behalf of the steel 40CrMnMo.The diameter of oil quenching is 80mm, with high comprehensive mechanical properties and good tempering stability.Used for manufacturing heavy load gear and shaft parts with large section.  manganese-molybdenum-vanadium steel: 30Mn2MoWA on behalf of the steel.Good hardenability: water quenching up to 150mm, the heart structure is upper and lower bainite plus a small amount of martensite;Oil quenching 70mm, more than 95% martensite in the heart;Good low temperature impact toughness, low notch sensitivity and high fatigue strength.It is used to manufacture important parts under 80mm.  chromium manganese silicon steel: 30CrMnSiA on behalf of the steel.Water quenching 40-60mm (95% martensite), oil quenching 25-40mm.High strength, impact toughness, temper brittleness.Used for manufacturing high pressure blower blade, valve plate, clutch friction plate, shaft and gear.  chrome-nickel steel: represents steel types 40CrNi and 45CrNi.Water quenching up to 40mm, oil quenching up to 15-25mm;Good comprehensive mechanical properties, good low temperature impact toughness, little tempering brittleness.30CrNi3A has high hardenability, good comprehensive mechanical properties, white point sensitivity and temper brittleness.Used for making large section of crankshaft, connecting rod, gear, shaft and bolt.  chromium-nickel-molybdenum steel: 40CrNiMoA, on behalf of the steel.It has excellent comprehensive mechanical properties, high impact toughness at low temperature, low notch sensitivity and no tempering brittleness.Used for making large crankshaft, shaft, connecting rod, gear, bolt and other parts with large force and complex shape.  cr, ni, mo, v steel: 45CrNiMoVA.High strength, good tempering stability, oil quenching up to 60mm (95% martensite).It is used to manufacture elastic shaft and torsion shaft of heavy truck under vibration load.
8.Questions concerning casting properties
Alloy casting performance (castability, castingproperty) refers to the alloy in the casting of process performance, mainly refers to the liquidity of alloy and the contraction of alloy, etc.These properties are important for obtaining sound castings.liquidityFluidity refers to the capacity of liquid alloy to fill the mold.The alloy fluid has good fluidity, which is easy to fill the mold cavity to obtain the casting with clear outline and complete size. On the contrary, the alloy has poor fluidity, which is easy to produce defects such as underpouring, cold insulation, porosity and slag inclusion.Among the commonly used alloys, gray cast iron and silicon brass have the best fluidity and cast steel has the worst fluidity.There are many factors affecting the fluidity, among which the main factors are the chemical composition of the alloy, pouring temperature and filling condition of the mold.systolicShrinkage is a phenomenon in which the volume and size of liquid alloys decrease continuously during cooling and solidification.Shrinkage is the physical property of the casting alloy itself and is the fundamental cause of many defects (shrinkage cavity, shrinkage porosity, internal stress, deformation and crack, etc.) in the casting.The alloy liquid goes through three stages from pouring into the cavity to cooling at room temperature:1. Liquidcontraction: the contraction between the cooling of pouring temperature and the temperature of the liquidus starting to crystallize.2. The solidification shrinkage (solidificationcontraction) : from began to crystallization temperature cooling crystallization of solidus temperature contraction.Solidcontraction: the contraction from the temperature at which crystallization is completed to room temperature.The liquid shrinkage and solidification shrinkage of the alloy are represented by the volume shrinkage of the alloy, which is usually expressed by the volume shrinkage ratio.Although the solid shrinkage of the alloy is also a change in volume, it only causes a change in the outside size of the casting, so it is usually expressed as a line shrinkage.Solid shrinkage is the root cause of internal stress, deformation and cracks in castings.The chemical composition, pouring temperature, casting condition and casting structure are the main factors affecting the shrinkage of the alloy.The actual shrinkage of castings varies with the shape, size and process conditions.In addition, in the process of cooling the alloy liquid into castings, the chemical composition of each part is not uniform, that is, segregation, inhalation and oxidation have a negative effect on the casting performance.
9.shape memory alloy
They have the characteristics of high elasticity, metal rubber performance, high strength and so on. After plastic deformation occurs under the stress at a lower temperature, after heating, it returns to the shape before heating. Such as ni-ti, ag-cd, cu-cd, cu-al-ni, cu-al-zn and other alloys can be used to adjust the elastic elements of the device (such as clutch, throttle valve, temperature control elements, etc.), hot engine materials, medical materials (orthodontic materials), etc. The shape memory effect is derived from a thermoelastic martensitic phase change. The general martensitic transformation as a method of steel hardening, is to heat the steel above a certain critical temperature for a period of time, and then quickly cool, for example, directly into cold water (called quenching), when the steel into a martensitic structure, and harden the steel. Later, a different so-called thermoelastic martensitic transformation was found in some alloys, in which the thermoelastic martensitic transformation, once produced, continued to grow as the temperature decreased. On the contrary, when the temperature rises, the growing martensite can shrink again until it returns to the original state, that is, the martensite can grow or shrink reversibly with the change of temperature. The thermoelastic martensitic transformation is accompanied by a change in shape.
Al - li alloy has the characteristics of high specific strength (fracture strength/density), high specific stiffness and relatively small density. In the case of a Boeing 747, for every kilogram lost, the profit is $2,000 a year. Titanium alloy is lighter than steel, corrosion resistance, non - magnetic, high strength, is used in aviation and naval ideal materials.
11.hydrogen storage alloy
Due to the limited reserves of oil and coal and the environmental pollution caused in the use process, especially the global oil crisis in the 1970s, hydrogen energy as a new clean fuel has become a research hotspot. Storage and transportation of hydrogen is an important link in the process of hydrogen energy utilization. LaNi5 hydrogen storage alloy was developed by philips in the Netherlands in 1969, which has the property of reversibly absorbing and releasing hydrogen in large quantities. Hydrogen storage alloys are alloys of two specific metals, one of which absorbs hydrogen in large quantities to form stable hydrides, while the other has a low affinity for hydrogen, but hydrogen can easily move around in it. Mg, Ca, Ti, Zr, Y and La belong to the first metal, while Fe, Co, Ni, Cr, Cu and Zn belong to the second. The former controls the amount of hydrogen stored, while the latter controls the reversibility of hydrogen released. The ideal hydrogen storage material which can absorb and release hydrogen reversibly at room temperature was prepared by adjusting the absorption and emission performance of the alloy.
The nickel-cobalt alloy can withstand the high temperature of 1 200 ℃ and can be used in the components of jet aircraft and gas turbine. At 1 200 ℃, ni - co - fe non - magnetic heat resistant alloy still has the characteristics of high strength and good toughness. It is still the future research direction to find alloy materials that meet the requirements of high temperature resistance, long time operation (more than 10 000 h), corrosion resistance and high strength.
And vibration-reducing alloys to reduce noise; Biomedical materials that replace, enhance and repair human organs and tissues; Intelligent materials with intelligent functions and life features, such as self-diagnosis, self-adaptation, and even self-healing of damage, are equipped with sensors, signal processors, communication and controllers and actuators implanted in materials or structures.
14.corrosion resistant alloy; anticorrosion alloy
The ability of metal material to resist medium erosion in corrosive medium is called the corrosion resistance of metal. High corrosion resistance in pure metals usually meet one of the following three conditions: Metals with high thermodynamic stability. The potential of the standard electrode can be used to judge its stability. The less stable is the less stable. Precious metals with good corrosion resistance, such as Pt, Au, Ag, Cu, etc., belong to this category. (2) easily passivated metal. Many metals can form a protective dense oxide film in oxidizing medium. This phenomenon is called passivation. The most easily passivated metals are Ti, Zr, Ta, Nb, Cr and Al. The surface can produce insoluble and good protection of corrosion product film metal. This situation only occurs when the metal is in a specific corrosive medium, for example, Pb and Al in H2SO4 solution, Fe in H3PO4 solution, Mo in hydrochloric acid and Zn in the atmosphere. Therefore, according to the above principles, a series of corrosion-resistant alloys are obtained by alloying in industry. Generally, there are three corresponding methods: (1) to improve the thermodynamic stability of metal or alloy, that is, to the original corrosion resistant metal or alloy with high thermodynamic stability of alloy elements, so that the formation of a solid solution and improve the electrode potential of the alloy, enhance its corrosion resistance. For example, adding Au to Cu and adding Cu, Cr, etc., to Ni, belongs to this category. However, the application of this method of adding large amounts of precious metals in industrial structural materials is limited. Adding easily passivated alloy elements, such as Cr, Ni, Mo, etc., can improve the corrosion resistance of the matrix metal. Chromium stainless steel can be made by adding an appropriate amount of Cr to the steel. Experimental results show that in stainless steel, Cr content should be greater than 13% in general to play the role of corrosion resistance, the higher the content of Cr, the better its corrosion resistance. This kind of stainless steel has good corrosion resistance in oxidizing medium, but in non-oxidizing medium such as dilute sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid, corrosion resistance is poor. This is because the non-oxidizing acid is not easy to make the alloy oxide film, and has a dissolving effect on the oxide film. The addition of alloy elements that can promote the formation of dense corrosion product protective film on the alloy surface is another way to make corrosion resistant alloy. For example, steel is resistant to atmospheric corrosion due to the formation on its surface of the dense compound iron hydroxide [FeOx·(OH)23-2x], which ACTS as a protective agent. The addition of Cu and P or P and Cr to steel can promote the formation of this protective film, so that Cu, P or P, Cr can be used to make atmospheric corrosion resistant low alloy steel. Metal corrosion is the most harmful spontaneous process in industry, so the development and application of corrosion-resistant alloys have great social significance and economic value. The ability of metal material to resist medium erosion in corrosive medium is called the corrosion resistance of metal. High corrosion resistance in pure metals usually meet one of the following three conditions: Metals with high thermodynamic stability. The potential of the standard electrode can be used to judge its stability. The less stable is the less stable. Precious metals with good corrosion resistance, such as Pt, Au, Ag, Cu, etc., belong to this category. (2) easily passivated metal. Many metals can form a protective dense oxide film in oxidizing medium. This phenomenon is called passivation. The most easily passivated metals are Ti, Zr, Ta, Nb, Cr and Al. The surface can produce insoluble and good protection of corrosion product film metal. This situation only occurs when the metal is in a specific corrosive medium, for example, Pb and Al in H2SO4 solution, Fe in H3PO4 solution, Mo in hydrochloric acid and Zn in the atmosphere. Therefore, according to the above principles, a series of corrosion-resistant alloys are obtained by alloying in industry. Generally, there are three corresponding methods: (1) to improve the thermodynamic stability of metal or alloy, that is, to the original corrosion resistant metal or alloy with high thermodynamic stability of alloy elements, so that the formation of a solid solution and improve the electrode potential of the alloy, enhance its corrosion resistance. For example, adding Au to Cu and adding Cu, Cr, etc., to Ni, belongs to this category. However, the application of this method of adding large amounts of precious metals in industrial structural materials is limited. Adding easily passivated alloy elements, such as Cr, Ni, Mo, etc., can improve the corrosion resistance of the matrix metal. Chromium stainless steel can be made by adding an appropriate amount of Cr to the steel. Experimental results show that in stainless steel, Cr content should be greater than 13% in general to play the role of corrosion resistance, the higher the content of Cr, the better its corrosion resistance. This kind of stainless steel has good corrosion resistance in oxidizing medium, but in non-oxidizing medium such as dilute sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid, corrosion resistance is poor. This is because the non-oxidizing acid is not easy to make the alloy oxide film, and has a dissolving effect on the oxide film. The addition of alloy elements that can promote the formation of dense corrosion product protective film on the alloy surface is another way to make corrosion resistant alloy. For example, steel is resistant to atmospheric corrosion due to the formation on its surface of the dense compound iron hydroxide [FeOx·(OH)23-2x], which ACTS as a protective agent. The addition of Cu and P or P and Cr to steel can promote the formation of this protective film, so that Cu, P or P, Cr can be used to make atmospheric corrosion resistant low alloy steel. Metal corrosion is the most harmful spontaneous process in industry, so the development and application of corrosion-resistant alloys have great social significance and economic value.
15.calorite; heat-resisting alloy
Heat resistant alloy, also known as high temperature alloy, is of great significance to industrial sectors and application technology under high temperature conditions. Generally speaking, the higher the melting point of the metal material, the higher the temperature limit that can be used. This is because with the increase of temperature, the mechanical properties of metal materials decline significantly, and the trend of oxidation and corrosion increases accordingly. Therefore, general metal materials can only work for a long time at 500 ℃ ~ 600 ℃. A metal that can work at a temperature higher than 700 ℃ is generally called a heat-resistant alloy. "Heat resistant" means that it retains sufficient strength and good oxidation resistance at high temperatures. There are two ways to improve the oxidation resistance of iron and steel: one is to add Cr, Si, Al and other alloy elements in steel, or on the surface of steel Cr, Si, Al alloying treatment. They can quickly form a dense oxide film in an oxidizing atmosphere and attach to the surface of the steel firmly, thus effectively preventing the continuation of oxidation. The second is to use a variety of methods in the steel surface to form high melting point of oxides, carbides, nitride and other high temperature resistant coating. There are many ways to improve the high temperature strength of steel. From the chemical point of view of structure and property, there are two main methods: One is to increase the bonding force between atoms in steel at high temperature. The research indicates that the bonding force, or the strength of the metal bond, is mainly related to the number of unpaired electrons in the atom. Seen from the table, the strongest metallic bonding Ⅵ B elements in the same period. Therefore, adding Cr, Mo, W and other atoms into steel has the best effect. The second is to add elements that can form various carbides or intermetallic compounds to strengthen the steel matrix. The carbides formed by some transition metals and carbon atoms are gap compounds, which add covalent bond components to the metal bond, and thus have great hardness and high melting point. For example, adding W, Mo, V and Nb can generate WC, W2C, MoC, Mo2C, VC, NbC and other carbides, thus increasing the high temperature strength of steel. In addition to the iron-base heat-resistant alloys, the nickel-base, molybdenum-base, niobium base and tungsten-base heat-resistant alloys can be prepared by the alloy method. Among them, nickel base alloy is the best superheat resistant metal material. Cr? The use temperature of Co solid solution and Ni3Al metal compound can reach 1 000 ℃ ~ 1 100 ℃ after treatment.
Titanium is the IVB element in the periodic table, looks like steel, melting point up to 1 672 ℃, is a refractory metal. Titanium is abundant in the earth's crust, much higher than Cu, Zn, Sn, Pb and other common metals. China's titanium resources are extremely rich. Only the ultra-large vanadium titanium magnetite discovered in panzhihua area, sichuan province, has about 420 million tons of associated titanium metal reserves, which is close to the total proved titanium reserves of foreign countries. Pure titanium has strong mechanical properties, good plasticity and is easy to process. If there are impurities, especially O, N and C, it can improve the strength and hardness of titanium, but reduce its plasticity and increase brittleness. Titanium is a metal that is easily passivated, and its passivated film can heal itself after being damaged in an oxygen-containing environment. Therefore, the dry corrosion media are stable. Titanium and titanium alloys have excellent corrosion resistance and can only be eroded by the concentration of hydrofluoric acid. Especially stable, titanium or titanium alloy put out, still bright as before, far better than stainless steel. Another important property of titanium is its low density. It is 3.5 times stronger than stainless steel and 1.3 times stronger than aluminum, the highest among all industrial metals. Liquid titanium dissolves almost all metals, forming various alloys such as solid solutions or metal compounds. The addition of alloying elements such as Al, V, Zr, Sn, Si, Mo and Mn can improve the performance of titanium to meet the needs of different departments. For example, ti-al-sn alloy has high thermal stability and can work for a long time at a fairly high temperature. The superplastic alloy represented by ti-al-v alloy can be processed by 50% ~ 150% elongation, and its maximum elongation can reach 2,000%. The maximum elongation of general alloys is not more than 30%. Because of these excellent properties, titanium has the reputation of being the metal of the future. Titanium alloy has been widely used in various sectors of the national economy. It is an indispensable material for rockets, missiles and space shuttles. Titanium alloys are widely used in ships, chemicals, electronics and communications equipment, and in a number of light industrial sectors, although their high cost limits their widespread use.
Material in the external magnetic field, can show three kinds of conditions: (1) not attracted by the magnetic field, called diamagnetic material; Weakly attracted by the magnetic field, called paramagnetic materials; Strongly attracted by the magnetic field, said ferromagnetic material, its magnetic field with the strengthening of the external magnetic field and sharply increased, and the external magnetic field removed, still can retain magnetic. Most of the transition metals are paramagnetic. Only a few metals such as Fe, Co and Ni are ferromagnetic. The main elements that make up the permanent magnetic materials in metals are Fe, Co, Ni and some rare earth elements. Are there rare earths in the permanent magnetic alloy used? Cobalt, iron? Chrome? Cobalt and manganese? Aluminum? Carbon alloy. Magnetic alloys are widely used in the fields of power, electronics, computer, automatic control and electrooptics.
18.How are carbide tool materials classified?
Common cemented carbide is mainly composed of WC and can be divided into the following categories according to the addition of other carbides: Tungsten cobalt (WC+Co) cemented carbide (YG) it is composed of WC and Co, with a high bending strength of the toughness, good thermal conductivity, but the heat and wear resistance is poor, mainly used for processing cast iron and non-ferrous metals. Fine grain YG carbide (such as YG3X, YG6X), in the same amount of cobalt, its hardness wear resistance than YG3, YG6 higher, the strength and toughness is slightly poor, suitable for processing hard cast iron, austenitic stainless steel, heat resistant alloy, hard bronze, etc. Tungsten, titanium and cobalt (WC+TiC+Co) cemented carbide (YT) due to the TiC hardness and melting point are higher than WC, so compared with YG, its hardness, wear resistance, red hardness increase, high bonding temperature, strong antioxidant capacity, and at high temperature will generate TiO 2, can reduce the bond. But the thermal conductivity is poor, bending strength is low, so it is suitable for processing steel and other ductile materials.
19.How to choose the right circular saw blade？
Alloy saw blades should be selected according to cut wood and tooth profile Commonly used tooth shape is left and right teeth (alternate teeth), flat teeth, ladder teeth (high and low teeth), inverted trapezoid teeth (inverted conical teeth), dovetail teeth (hump teeth) 1. The left and right teeth are most widely used, with fast cutting speed and relatively simple grinding. It is suitable for crosscutting all kinds of soft and hard solid wood profile density board, multilayer board, particleboard, etc. Equipped with anti-rebound protection teeth, the left and right teeth are dovetail teeth, which are suitable for longitudinal cutting of all kinds of tree joint plate; With a negative front Angle left and right teeth saw blade because of sharp serrated, good cutting quality, usually used for paste panel sawing. 2. The flat tooth saw is rough, the cutting speed is slow, and the grinding is the most simple. Mainly used for ordinary wood sawing, low cost, mostly used for small diameter aluminum saw blade, in order to keep cutting to reduce adhesion, or used for slotting saw blade to keep groove bottom flat. 3. The combination of trapezoidal teeth and flat teeth of ladder teeth is complicated to repair and grind. When sawing, the veneer cracking can be reduced. In order to prevent adhesion, aluminum saw blades are also used to prevent the number of teeth of the ladder teeth. 4. The inverted ladder teeth are often used for cutting the plate saw bottom slot saw blade, when sawing the double veneer wood-based board, the slot saw adjusts the thickness to complete the grooving processing of the bottom surface, and then the main saw completes the plate cutting processing, in order to prevent the saw edge from collapsing. In summary, sawing wood, particleboard, dense board should be selected right and left teeth, sharp to cut off the wood fiber tissue, smooth incision; In order to keep the bottom of the groove smooth grooves, flat tooth tooth shape or left and right flat combination teeth; Sawing paste panel, fire board generally choose ladder teeth, computer material saw due to the large sawing rate, the diameter of the alloy saw blade thickness are relatively large, 350-450mm diameter, thickness between 4.0-4.8mm, most of the use of ladder teeth, in order to reduce edge collapse, saw marks.